Basically Linux OS uses a FSH which means “FileSystem Hierarchy Standard“, which allow you to organize all data and information in one specific order.
Benefit? Linux use the same FHS for a lot of family’s and distributions, so, if you learn the structure of Ubuntu for example, will be the same that Red Hat uses, so you should not need to relearn how the operating system is organized.
Notes: Linux uses the character “/” to separate the path of the folders, hard drives etc., Windows OS uses “\”, also, another difference between both OS related to storage is that for hard drives, Windows OS uses letters, Linux uses a combination of letters and the also the format is different.
-show current path-
[root@ebsconnectors /]# pwd
[root@ebsconnectors /]# ls
bin boot dev etc home lib lib64 media mnt opt proc root run sbin srv sys tmp usr var
Some distros change a little the structure but are minimum changes and depend on the OS version, so, you will see something similar to the previous example.
[root@ebsconnectors etc]# cat centos-release
CentOS Linux release 7.2.1511 (Core)